What is DNS? | How DNS Works

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Introduction to DNS

DNS, which stands for Domain Name System, is a fundamental part of the internet infrastructure. It serves as a directory that translates human-readable domain names into IP addresses, allowing users to access websites and other online services.

How DNS Works

When you enter a domain name, such as www.example.com, into your web browser, your computer sends a request to a DNS resolver. The resolver then searches for the IP address associated with that domain name.

The DNS resolver starts by checking its own cache, which stores previously resolved domain names and their corresponding IP addresses. If the resolver finds a match, it returns the IP address to your computer, and the connection is established.

If the resolver doesn’t have the IP address in its cache, it contacts a series of DNS servers to find the information. These servers are organized in a hierarchical structure.

The first level is the root server, which contains information about the top-level domains (TLDs) like .com, .org, and .net. When the resolver contacts the root server, it provides a referral to the appropriate TLD server.

The TLD server holds information about the second-level domains, such as example.com. It provides the resolver with the IP address of the authoritative DNS server for that domain.

The authoritative DNS server is the final stop in the DNS lookup process. It holds the specific IP address associated with the domain name. Once the resolver receives this information, it stores it in its cache for future use and returns the IP address to your computer.

Importance of DNS

DNS plays a vital role in the functioning of the internet. Without DNS, users would have to remember and enter IP addresses, which are a series of numbers, to access websites. Domain names provide a more user-friendly and memorable way to navigate the internet.

In addition to translating domain names into IP addresses, DNS also supports other important functions:

  • Email delivery: DNS is used to locate the mail servers responsible for handling email for a particular domain.
  • Load balancing: DNS can distribute incoming network traffic across multiple servers to ensure optimal performance and prevent overload.
  • Security: DNS plays a role in preventing various types of online threats, such as distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks.


DNS is a crucial component of the internet infrastructure that enables users to access websites and online services using domain names. By understanding how DNS works, you can appreciate the importance of this system and its role in making the internet more accessible and user-friendly.


Raffi Hakobyan

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